Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910-1994)

Developed method for identifying the atomic structure of penicillin and insulin molecules. She won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1954.  The technique, called X-ray crystallography, established three-dimensional biomolecular structures.  She published articles on the structure of Vitamin B12, steroids, and cholesterol.  Banned from the US due to the atmosphere of McCarthyism, for her husband’s membership in the British Communist Party.

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin: Biobgraphical.  The Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1964.”  Nobel Prize Organization.  Accessed 26 December 2021.

Dorothy Hodgkin.”  Wikipedia (website).  Accessed 26 December 2021.


Mayo Clinic Staff.  Vitamin B-12 (website).  Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 17 Jul 2021. Accessed 26 December 2021.

Penicillin.Wikipedia (website).  Accessed 26 December 2021.