Kartini, Indonesian Author, Educator, and Activist  (1879-1904)

She was an advocate for women’s rights in Java, when pre-independence Indonesia was part of the Dutch-ruled colony called the Netherlands East Indies.

She was self-educated, spoke fluent Dutch and Bahasa-Indonesia, and she established a school for girls.  She elevated the status of women in Java, even though she died at the young age of 25.

As most speakers of the Bahasa-Indonesia culture of Java use a single name, Kartini is how she should be known.  (On occasion, Westerners refer to her as Raden Adjeng Kartini, but the first two words are a title for married women of the noble Priyayi class, during the Dutch colonial era.

Kartini.”  Wikipedia (website).  Accessed 28 December 2021.

“Indonesian Names.”  Wikipedia (website).  Accessed 28 December 2021.